Vue.js Best Practices : Accessibility

Vue.js Best Practices : Accessibility

Web accessibility is a crucial aspect of modern web development. It ensures that people with disabilities can access and navigate websites effectively and efficiently. In this article, we will explore the best practices for implementing accessibility in Vue.js web applications.

Vue.js is a popular JavaScript framework for building user interfaces. It provides a powerful set of tools and features that make it easy to create interactive and responsive web applications. However, in order to create an inclusive user experience, it is important to consider accessibility from the beginning of the development process.

One of the key principles of web accessibility is providing alternative means of accessing content for users who may have disabilities. This can include providing text alternatives for images, using proper semantic markup, and ensuring keyboard navigability. In this article, we will discuss these and other best practices for making your Vue.js web app accessible to all users.

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your Vue.js web app is usable and enjoyable for users with disabilities. This will not only improve the overall user experience, but also help to create a more inclusive and accessible web for all.

Table of Contents

Importance of Accessibility in Web Apps

Ensuring accessibility in web apps is essential for creating an inclusive online experience for users with disabilities. Accessibility refers to the practice of designing websites and applications in a way that allows people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the content effectively.

Accessibility is not just a legal requirement, but it is also a moral and ethical responsibility for web developers. Everyone should have equal access to information and services online, regardless of their abilities.

Benefits of Accessibility

1. Inclusivity: By making your web app accessible, you are ensuring that it can be used by a wider range of people, including those with visual, hearing, physical, and cognitive disabilities. This inclusivity allows people with disabilities to participate fully in society.

2. User Experience: Accessibility improvements often result in a better user experience for all users. For example, making your web app keyboard navigable not only benefits people who rely on keyboards but also makes it easier for everyone to navigate using their keyboards rather than a mouse.

3. Legal Compliance: Many countries have laws and regulations in place that require websites and applications to be accessible. By not ensuring accessibility, you may expose your organization to legal repercussions.

Web Accessibility Guidelines

To ensure accessibility in your web app, you should follow the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). These guidelines provide a set of principles, guidelines, and success criteria for making web content more accessible. They cover areas such as perceivability, operability, understandability, and robustness.

One important aspect of WCAG is using semantic HTML and providing alternative text for non-text content. This allows assistive technologies, such as screen readers, to properly interpret and convey information to users with disabilities.


Accessibility is an integral part of web app development. By considering accessibility from the beginning and following best practices, you can ensure that your web app is usable by a wider audience, providing equal access to information and services for everyone.

Understanding Inclusive Design

Accessibility is a fundamental aspect of inclusive design, which seeks to make websites, apps, and other digital products usable and accessible to as many people as possible, regardless of their abilities or disabilities. Inclusive design goes beyond simply providing access to people with disabilities; it aims to create experiences that are usable, enjoyable, and beneficial for all users.

Principles of Inclusive Design

To understand inclusive design, it’s important to be familiar with its core principles:

  1. Equitable: Inclusive design ensures that everyone has equal access to information and functionality. It seeks to remove any barriers that may prevent people from fully participating in the digital world.
  2. Flexible: Inclusive design allows for customization and personalization, recognizing that individuals have different needs and preferences. It provides options and alternatives to accommodate a wide range of user abilities and preferences.
  3. Simple and Intuitive: Inclusive design aims to make the user experience as simple and intuitive as possible. It avoids unnecessary complexity or confusion, making it easy for users to understand and navigate digital products.
  4. Perceptible: Inclusive design ensures that information and functionality are presented in a way that can be perceived by all users. It considers factors such as visual, auditory, and tactile cues to ensure that content is accessible to people with different senses.
  5. Robust: Inclusive design is built on technologies and standards that are reliable, consistent, and compatible with various devices and assistive technologies. It aims to future-proof digital products, ensuring they can adapt and evolve alongside advancements in technology.

The Benefits of Inclusive Design

Inclusive design benefits all users, not just those with disabilities. By making digital products accessible and usable for a wide range of people, inclusive design improves the overall user experience and usability for everyone. It fosters diversity, inclusivity, and equality, creating a digital world that is accessible and welcoming to all.

Furthermore, inclusive design has practical benefits. It helps businesses reach a larger audience and tap into new markets. It also reduces the risk of exclusionary practices and potential legal issues related to accessibility compliance.

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Implementing Inclusive Design

Implementing inclusive design involves considering the needs and preferences of diverse user groups throughout the design and development process. Here are some key guidelines:

  • Conduct user research and involve individuals with disabilities in the design process to gain insights into their needs and challenges.
  • Use web standards and best practices to ensure compatibility with assistive technologies and different devices.
  • Provide text alternatives for non-text content, such as images, videos, and audio.
  • Ensure proper color contrast to make content readable for users with visual impairments.
  • Design clear and consistent navigation and user interface elements.
  • Provide user controls for customizing and personalizing the experience, such as text resizing and color schemes.
  • Test the accessibility of your digital products throughout the design and development process.


Inclusive design is not only a legal and ethical responsibility but also a way to create better digital experiences for all users. By embracing the principles of inclusive design and implementing accessibility best practices, developers can ensure that their web apps are inclusive, usable, and enjoyable for everyone.

How Vue.js Supports Accessibility


Via aria-role attribute, Vue.js provides the ability to add semantic information to HTML elements, making it easier for assistive technologies to understand the purpose and functionality of each element. This can greatly enhance the accessibility of web applications built with Vue.js.


Vue.js allows developers to add aria-label attribute to elements, which provides a text alternative for the element’s label. By adding this attribute, developers can ensure that users relying on assistive technologies can understand the purpose or content of the element even without visually seeing it.


Using the aria-disabled attribute, Vue.js enables developers to indicate when a component or element is disabled. This helps users with disabilities understand that a certain functionality is not available or not interactive, improving the overall user experience.

Keyboard Events

Vue.js provides built-in support for handling keyboard events, which is essential for making web applications accessible. Developers can easily add event listeners for keyboard actions such as key press, key release, and key combinations. This ensures that users who rely on keyboard navigation can access and interact with all features of the web application.

Vue Router and Accessibility

Vue Router, the official router for Vue.js, includes automatic focus management on route navigation, which improves accessibility for users who rely on keyboard navigation. This feature ensures that the focus is automatically shifted to the appropriate element when navigating between routes, providing a seamless user experience.

Testing and Maintaining Accessibility

Testing and Maintaining Accessibility

Vue.js provides testing utilities, such as @testing-library/vue, which can be used to perform accessibility tests on web applications. These tools help developers identify and fix accessibility issues, making it easier to maintain an inclusive and accessible user experience.

Vue-devtools and A11y

The Vue-devtools browser extension provides an Accessibility (A11y) tab that allows developers to analyze the accessibility of their Vue.js applications. This tab provides insights and suggestions on how to improve the accessibility of the application, helping developers ensure that their web app is inclusive and usable by all users.

Community Support and Resources

The Vue.js community actively promotes and supports accessibility practices. There are numerous resources, tutorials, and guidelines available to help developers create accessible Vue.js applications. The vibrant community ensures that developers have access to the latest best practices and techniques for building inclusive web applications.

Using Semantic HTML with Vue.js

One of the key principles of making a web app accessible is to appropriately structure the content using semantic HTML. This principle holds true when working with Vue.js as well, as it allows us to create a clean and meaningful structure for our components.

By using semantic HTML elements, we provide a clearer understanding of the purpose and meaning of each element to both users and assistive technologies. This improves the overall accessibility and usability of the web app.

1. Use Appropriate HTML Tags

When creating Vue.js components, it’s important to choose the most appropriate HTML tag for each piece of content. For example:

  • Use <h1> to indicate the main heading of a page or section.
  • Use <p> for paragraphs of text.
  • Use <strong> or <em> to emphasize important text.
  • Use <ul> and <li> for unordered lists.
  • Use <ol> and <li> for ordered lists.
  • Use <table>, <thead>, <tbody>, <tr>, and <td> for tabular data.

By using these tags correctly, we provide meaningful structure to our Vue.js components and make it easier for users to navigate and understand the content.

2. Use ARIA Attributes

In addition to using semantic HTML tags, we can also leverage Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) attributes to further enhance the accessibility of our Vue.js components. ARIA attributes provide additional information and context to assistive technologies.

For example, we can use the aria-label attribute to provide a descriptive label for elements that don’t have visible text. We can also use the aria-describedby attribute to point to an element that provides additional information about the current element.

By using ARIA attributes judiciously, we can ensure that our Vue.js components are accessible to a wider range of users, including those who rely on assistive technologies.

3. Test with Accessibility Tools

Lastly, it’s important to test the accessibility of our Vue.js web app using various accessibility tools. These tools can help identify any potential issues and provide guidance on how to fix them.

Some popular accessibility tools include:

  • WAVE Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool
  • axe DevTools
  • Lighthouse

By regularly testing our Vue.js web app for accessibility, we can ensure that it remains inclusive and usable for all users.

In conclusion, using semantic HTML with Vue.js is an essential practice to make our web app accessible. By choosing appropriate HTML tags, using ARIA attributes, and testing with accessibility tools, we can create a more inclusive experience for our users.

Providing Alternative Text for Images

In order to make your web application accessible to users who are visually impaired or otherwise unable to see images, it is important to provide alternative text for all of your images. Alternative text, also known as alt text, is a written description of an image that can be read by screen readers and other assistive technologies. This allows users to understand the content and context of the image, even if they are unable to see it.

When providing alt text for images, it is important to be concise and descriptive. Your alt text should convey the purpose and meaning of the image, without being too long or overly detailed. It is also important to avoid using vague or generic phrases, as this may not provide the necessary information to users. Instead, try to provide specific details that are relevant to the image.

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Here are some best practices to keep in mind when providing alternative text for images:

  • Keep the alt text short and succinct, while still providing enough information to convey the purpose or meaning of the image.
  • Avoid using phrases like “image of” or “picture of” as they are redundant and provide no additional information.
  • Describe the content and context of the image in a way that is useful and relevant to the user.
  • Include any important details or visual elements that are necessary for understanding the image.
  • Use keywords that are descriptive and specific to the image, rather than generic terms.
  • If the image contains text, make sure to include that text in the alt text.
  • Consider the purpose of the image and how it relates to the surrounding content, and provide alt text accordingly.

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your web application is more inclusive and accessible to all users, regardless of their abilities. Providing alternative text for images is a simple but important step towards creating a more inclusive web experience for everyone.

Ensuring Keyboard Accessibility

Keyboard accessibility is a crucial aspect of web accessibility. It ensures that users who cannot or prefer not to use a mouse can still navigate and interact with your web application using only their keyboard. Here are some best practices to ensure keyboard accessibility:

1. Use a Logical Tab Order

Make sure the focusable elements in your web application are ordered in a logical sequence. Users should be able to navigate through the elements in a meaningful and consistent way using the “Tab” key.

2. Provide Keyboard Focus Indication

Ensure that keyboard-focused elements have a clear visual indication. This can be achieved by using CSS styles to highlight the focused element with a border, background color, or any other suitable visual cue.

3. Handle Keyboard Events

Implement event handlers for keyboard events such as “keydown”, “keyup”, and “keypress” to enable keyboard interaction with your web application. Use these event handlers to perform the appropriate actions when the user triggers a keyboard event, such as navigating through a menu or submitting a form.

4. Don’t Rely Solely on Mouseover Event

Avoid relying solely on the “mouseover” event for triggering actions or showing additional information. Some users may not be able to hover over elements using a keyboard. Instead, consider using the “focus” event to trigger actions or show additional information when an element receives keyboard focus.

5. Make Keyboard Shortcuts Clear and Discoverable

If you provide keyboard shortcuts in your web application, make sure they are clear and discoverable. Consider providing a visible list of available shortcuts, allowing users to easily access and understand the shortcuts available to them.

6. Test With Keyboard Navigation

Regularly test your web application using only keyboard navigation. This will help uncover any potential issues or barriers that users may encounter when using a keyboard to navigate and interact with your application. Use tools like the Tab key and arrow keys to navigate through the elements and perform various actions.

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your web application is keyboard accessible, providing a better user experience for all users, including those who rely on keyboards for navigation.

Implementing ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) Roles and Attributes

ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) provides a set of attributes and roles that can be added to HTML elements to make web applications more accessible to people with disabilities. By implementing ARIA roles and attributes, you can enhance the usability and accessibility of your web app.

ARIA Roles

ARIA roles define the type or nature of an element and help assistive technologies understand its purpose. Some commonly used ARIA roles include:

  • Role=”button”: Indicates that an element functions as a button and can be activated or clicked.
  • Role=”checkbox”: Represents a checkbox that can be checked or unchecked.
  • Role=”tab”: Represents a tab that can be selected within a tabbed interface.
  • Role=”slider”: Represents a control that can be moved horizontally or vertically to change a value.
  • Role=”combobox”: Represents a widget that combines a text input field and a list of options.

ARIA Attributes

ARIA attributes provide additional information about the elements and help improve their accessibility. Some commonly used ARIA attributes include:

  • aria-label: Specifies a label for an element when the visible label is not descriptive enough.
  • aria-expanded: Indicates whether a collapsible element is currently expanded or collapsed.
  • aria-hidden: Indicates that an element is hidden and should not be visible or interacted with.
  • aria-disabled: Indicates that an element is disabled and cannot be interacted with.
  • aria-describedby: Identifies an element that describes the current element, providing additional context or explanation.

Implementing ARIA Roles and Attributes

To implement ARIA roles and attributes, you can use the HTML attributes like role and aria-*. For example:

<button role="button" aria-label="Close">X</button>

<div role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="tab1">...</div>

<input type="checkbox" aria-checked="true">

<span role="slider" aria-valuenow="50" aria-valuemin="0" aria-valuemax="100"></span>

Keep in mind that you should only use ARIA roles and attributes when necessary and ensure that they accurately reflect the behavior and functionality of your web app. Also, make sure to test the accessibility of your implementation using assistive technologies and accessibility evaluation tools.

Managing Focus and Focus Indicator

Managing focus is an important aspect of accessibility in a web application. By default, when a user interacts with a web page, the focus is placed on the element that is being interacted with. This helps users who rely on a keyboard or other assistive technologies to navigate and interact with the content.

However, it’s important to ensure that the focus is managed properly to provide a good user experience. One key aspect of managing focus is to ensure that the focus indicator is clearly visible and easy to identify. The focus indicator is a visual cue that highlights the currently focused element.

By default, most web browsers use a dotted outline to indicate focus on an element. However, this default styling might not be sufficient for users with visual impairments or certain cognitive disabilities. Therefore, it’s recommended to customize the focus indicator to make it more noticeable.

The focus indicator can be customized using CSS by targeting the “:focus” pseudo-class and applying appropriate styling. This can include changing the color, thickness, or shape of the focus indicator. It’s important to ensure that the customized focus indicator remains accessible, meaning it should provide enough contrast with the background and not be obstructive or distracting.

Here are some best practices for managing focus and focus indicator:

  1. Ensure that the focus order follows a logical and intuitive flow, allowing users to navigate through interactive elements in a meaningful way. This can be achieved by using tabindex and the natural tab order of the page.
  2. Make sure that all interactive elements, such as buttons, links, and form fields, receive focus and have a clearly visible focus indicator.
  3. Test the focus indicator with keyboard navigation to ensure that it is easily identifiable and doesn’t cause any confusion or frustration for users.
  4. Consider using additional visual cues, such as highlighting or increasing the size of the focused element, to make it more noticeable.
  5. Ensure that the focus indicator is visible in different contexts, including different device sizes and screen orientations.

Example of custom focus indicator styles:
Selector Style
a:focus, button:focus, input:focus outline: solid 2px blue;
input[type=”checkbox”]:focus, input[type=”radio”]:focus box-shadow: 0 0 2px 2px blue;

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your web application provides a more inclusive and accessible experience for all users.

Testing Accessibility in Vue.js Apps

Testing the accessibility of your Vue.js apps is an important step to ensure that all users, including those with disabilities, have a great user experience. By following accessibility best practices and standards, you can make your web app more inclusive and accessible to a wider audience.

Manual Testing

One way to test the accessibility of your Vue.js app is through manual testing. This involves using assistive technologies such as screen readers, keyboard navigation, and screen magnifiers to interact with your app. By simulating the experience of users with different disabilities, you can identify any accessibility issues and make the necessary improvements.

Here are some manual testing techniques you can use:

  • Use a screen reader (such as VoiceOver for macOS or NVDA for Windows) to navigate your app and ensure that all content is read correctly, including alternative text for images.
  • Turn off the mouse and use only the keyboard to navigate your app. Test if all interactive elements are keyboard accessible and that focus is properly managed.
  • Zoom in on your app using screen magnification tools to test if all content is still visible and readable.
  • Test your app with high contrast mode enabled to ensure that all content is distinguishable.

Automated Testing

In addition to manual testing, you can also use automated testing tools to check the accessibility of your Vue.js app. These tools scan your app for common accessibility issues and provide reports with actionable insights.

Here are some popular automated testing tools for accessibility:

  • axe-core: A JavaScript library that can be integrated into your Vue.js testing framework to automatically detect accessibility issues.
  • Lighthouse: A tool built into the Chrome DevTools that can audit your Vue.js app for performance, accessibility, and other best practices.
  • Pa11y: A command-line accessibility testing tool that scans your app for WCAG 2.0 AA compliance.

User Testing

In addition to manual and automated testing, it’s also important to involve users with disabilities in the testing process. Conducting user tests with individuals who have different accessibility needs can provide valuable insights into the usability and accessibility of your Vue.js app.

When conducting user tests, consider the following:

  • Recruit participants with diverse abilities and disabilities.
  • Observe how users interact with your app and listen to their feedback.
  • Ask specific questions about accessibility features and any difficulties they may have encountered.
  • Use their feedback to make improvements to your app’s accessibility.


Testing the accessibility of your Vue.js app is crucial to ensure that all users can effectively use and navigate your app. By combining manual testing, automated testing, and user testing, you can identify and address accessibility issues to create a more inclusive and user-friendly web app.

Resources for Further Learning


  • How to Build Accessible Vue.js Applications – This article provides a step-by-step guide on building accessible Vue.js applications, covering topics such as keyboard navigation, ARIA roles, and focus management. It also includes code examples and best practices. Available at:
  • Practical ARIA Examples in Vue.js – This article explains how to use ARIA attributes in Vue.js applications, with practical examples for common UI components. It covers topics such as ARIA labels, live regions, and focus management. Available at:
  • Accessible Modal Dialogs in Vue.js – This article demonstrates how to create accessible modal dialogs in Vue.js, including keyboard accessibility, focus management, and ARIA attributes. It also includes code examples and recommendations for improving accessibility. Available at:


  • ARIA Authoring Practices Guide – This guide provides best practices and recommendations for using ARIA in web content. It includes examples and explanations for ARIA roles, states, and properties. Available at:
  • Vue.js Accessibility Documentation – The official Vue.js documentation includes a section on accessibility, covering topics such as focus management, keyboard navigation, and ARIA support. It provides code examples and recommendations for building accessible Vue.js applications. Available at:



What is accessibility in web development?

Accessibility in web development refers to the practice of making web applications and websites accessible to all users, including those with disabilities. This involves designing and coding web pages in a way that allows users with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the content.

Why is accessibility important in web development?

Accessibility is important in web development because it ensures that all users, regardless of their abilities, can access and use web applications and websites. It is also required by law in many countries. Making web apps accessible improves the user experience for everyone and can increase the audience reach of a web app.

What are some common accessibility issues in web development?

Some common accessibility issues in web development include lack of meaningful alternative text for images, insufficient color contrast, inaccessible form elements, lack of proper headings, and inaccessible navigation. These issues can make it difficult or impossible for users with disabilities to access and use the web app.

What are some best practices for accessibility in Vue.js?

Some best practices for accessibility in Vue.js include using semantic HTML elements, providing alternative text for images, using accessible form elements, ensuring proper color contrast, providing clear and concise headings, and ensuring that the app is navigable using only a keyboard. Additionally, it’s important to test the app with assistive technologies to ensure accessibility.